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1.      Describe the role of inetinfo.exe, aspnet_isapi.dll andaspnet_wp.exe in the page loading process.
inetinfo.exe is theMicrosoft IIS server running, handling ASP.NET requests among other things.When an ASP.NET request is received (usually a file with .aspx extension), the ISAPI filter aspnet_isapi.dll takes care of it by passing the request tothe actual worker process aspnet_wp.exe.

2.      What’s the difference between Response.Write() andResponse.Output.Write()?
Response.Output.Write() allows you to write formatted output. 

3.      What methods are fired during the page load?
Init() - when the page is instantiated
Load() - when the page is loaded into server memory
PreRender() - the brief moment before the page is displayed to the user as HTML
Unload() - when page finishes loading. 

4.      When during the page processing cycle is ViewState available?
After the Init() and before the Page_Load(), or OnLoad() for a control. 

5.      What namespace does the Web page belong in the .NET Framework class hierarchy?

6.      Where do you store the information about the user’s locale?

7.      What’s the difference between Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs" andSrc="MyCode.aspx.cs"?
CodeBehind is relevant to Visual Studio.NET only. 

8.      What’s a bubbled event?
When you have a complex control, like DataGrid, writing an event processing routine for each object (cell, button, row, etc.) is quite tedious. The controls can bubble up their eventhandlers, allowing the main DataGrid event handler to take care of its constituents. 

9.      Suppose you want a certain ASP.NET function executed on MouseOver for a certain button.  Where do you add an event handler?
Add an OnMouseOver attribute to the button.  Example: btnSubmit.Attributes.Add("onmouseover","someClientCodeHere();"); 

10.  What data types do the RangeValidator control support?
Integer, String, and Date. 

11.  Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?
Server-side code executes on the server.  Client-side code executes in the client's browser. 

12.  What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?
The answer is server-side code since code-behind is executed on the server.  However, during the code-behind's execution on the server, it can render client-side code such as JavaScript to be processed in the clients browser.  But just to be clear, code-behind executes on the server, thus making it server-side code. 

13.  Should user input data validation occur server-side or client-side?  Why?
All user input data validation should occur on the server at a minimum.  Additionally, client-side validation can be performed where deemed appropriate and feasable to provide a richer, more responsive experience for the user. 

14.  What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect?  Why would I choose one over the other?
Server.Transfer transfers page processing from one page directly to the next page without making a round-trip back to the client's browser.  This provides a faster response with a little less overhead on the server.  Server.Transfer does not update the clients url history list or current url.  Response.Redirect is used to redirect the user's browser to another page or site.  This performas a trip back to the client where the client's browser is redirected to the new page.  The user's browser history list is updated to reflect the new address. 

15.  Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset?
Valid answers are:
·  A DataSet can represent an entire relational database in memory, complete with tables, relations, and views.
·  A DataSet is designed to work without any continuing connection to the original data source.
·  Data in a DataSet is bulk-loaded, rather than being loaded on demand.
·  There's no concept of cursor types in a DataSet.
·  DataSets have no current record pointer You can use For Each loops to move through the data.
·  You can store many edits in a DataSet, and write them to the original data source in a single operation.
·  Though the DataSet is universal, other objects in ADO.NET come in different versions for different data sources. 

16.  What is the Global.asax used for?
The Global.asax (including the Global.asax.cs file) is used to implement application and session level events. 

17.  What are the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines used for?
This is where you can set the specific variables for the Application and Session objects. 

18.  Can you explain what inheritance is and an example of when you might use it?
When you want to inherit (use the functionality of) another class.  Example: With a base class named Employee, a Manager class could be derived from the Employee base class. 

19.  Whats an assembly?
Assemblies are the building blocks of the .NET framework. Overview of assemblies from MSDN 

20.  Describe the difference between inline and code behind.
Inline code written along side the html in a page. Code-behind is code written in a separate file and referenced by the .aspx page. 

21.  Explain what a diffgram is, and a good use for one?
The DiffGram is one of the two XML formats that you can use to render DataSet object contents to XML.  A good use is reading database data to an XML file to be sent to a Web Service. 

22.  Whats MSIL, and why should my developers need an appreciation of it if at all?
MSIL is the Microsoft Intermediate Language. All .NET compatible languages will get converted to MSIL.  MSIL also allows the .NET Framework to JIT compile the assembly on the installed computer. 

23.  Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data?
The Fill() method. 

24.  Can you edit data in the Repeater control?
No, it just reads the information from its data source. 

25.  Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control?

26.  How can you provide an alternating color scheme in a Repeater control?
Use the AlternatingItemTemplate. 

27.  What property must you set, and what method must you call in your code, in order to bind the data from a data source to the Repeater control?
You must set the DataSource property and call the DataBind method. 

28.  What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?
The Page class. 

29.  Name two properties common in every validation control?
ControlToValidate property and Text property. 

30.  Which property on a Combo Box do you set with a column name, prior to setting the DataSource, to display data in the combo box?
DataTextField property. 

31.  Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different controls matched?
CompareValidator control. 

32.  How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?
It can contain many classes.

Web Service Questions

1.      What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service?
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the preferred protocol. 

2.      True or False: A Web service can only be written in .NET?

3.      What does WSDL stand for?
Web Services Description Language. 

4.      Where on the Internet would you look for Web services? 

5.      True or False: To test a Web service you must create a Windows application or Web application to consume this service?
False, the web service comes with a test page and it provides HTTP-GET method to test.

State Management Questions

1.      What is ViewState?
ViewState allows the state of objects (serializable) to be stored in a hidden field on the page.  ViewState is transported to the client and back to the server, and is not stored on the server or any other external source.  ViewState is used the retain the state of server-side objects between postabacks. 

2.      What is the lifespan for items stored in ViewState?
Item stored in ViewState exist for the life of the current page.  This includes postbacks (to the same page). 

3.      What does the "EnableViewState" property do?  Why would I want it on or off?
It allows the page to save the users input on a form across postbacks.  It saves the server-side values for a given control into ViewState, which is stored as a hidden value on the page before sending the page to the clients browser.  When the page is posted back to the server the server control is recreated with the state stored in viewstate. 

4.      What are the different types of Session state management options available with ASP.NET?
ASP.NET provides In-Process and Out-of-Process state management.  In-Process stores the session in memory on the web server.  This requires the a "sticky-server" (or no load-balancing) so that the user is always reconnected to the same web server.  Out-of-Process Session state management stores data in an external data source.  The external data source may be either a SQL Server or a State Server service.  Out-of-Process state management requires that all objects stored in session are serializable.


General Questions

1.      Does C# support multiple-inheritance?

2.      Who is a protected class-level variable available to?
It is available to any sub-class (a class inheriting this class).

3.      Are private class-level variables inherited?
Yes, but they are not accessible.  Although they are not visible or accessible via the class interface, they are inherited. 

4.      Describe the accessibility modifier “protected internal”.
It is available to classes that are within the same assembly and derived from the specified base class. 

5.      What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from?

6.      What does the term immutable mean?
The data value may not be changed.  Note: The variable value may be changed, but the original immutable data value was discarded and a new data value was created in memory. 

7.      What’s the difference between System.String and System.Text.StringBuilder classes?
System.String is immutable.  System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed. 

8.      What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String?
StringBuilder is more efficient in cases where there is a large amount of string manipulation.  Strings are immutable, so each time a string is changed, a new instance in memory is created.

9.      Can you store multiple data types in System.Array?

10.  What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?
The Clone() method returns a new array (a shallow copy) object containing all the elements in the original array.  The CopyTo() method copies the elements into another existing array.  Both perform a shallow copy.  A shallow copy means the contents (each array element) contains references to the same object as the elements in the original array.  A deep copy (which neither of these methods performs) would create a new instance of each element's object, resulting in a different, yet identacle object.

11.  How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?
By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods. 

12.  What’s the .NET collection class that allows an element to be accessed using a unique key?

13.  What class is underneath the SortedList class?
A sorted HashTable. 

14.  Will the finally block get executed if an exception has not occurred?­

15.  What’s the C# syntax to catch any possible exception?
A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception.  You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}. 

16.  Can multiple catch blocks be executed for a single try statement?
No.  Once the proper catch block processed, control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any). 

17.  Explain the three services model commonly know as a three-tier application.
Presentation (UI), Business (logic and underlying code) and Data (from storage or other sources). 

Class Questions

1.      What is the syntax to inherit from a class in C#?
Place a colon and then the name of the base class.
Example: class MyNewClass : MyBaseClass 

2.      Can you prevent your class from being inherited by another class?
Yes.  The keyword “sealed” will prevent the class from being inherited. 

3.      Can you allow a class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-ridden?
Yes.  Just leave the class public and make the method sealed. 

4.      What’s an abstract class?
A class that cannot be instantiated.  An abstract class is a class that must be inherited and have the methods overridden.  An abstract class is essentially a blueprint for a class without any implementation. 

5.      When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract?
1. When the class itself is inherited from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been overridden.
2.  When at least one of the methods in the class is abstract. 

6.      What is an interface class?
Interfaces, like classes, define a set of properties, methods, and events. But unlike classes, interfaces do not provide implementation. They are implemented by classes, and defined as separate entities from classes. 

7.      Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the interface?
They all must be public, and are therefore public by default. 

8.      Can you inherit multiple interfaces?
Yes.  .NET does support multiple interfaces. 

9.      What happens if you inherit multiple interfaces and they have conflicting method names?
It’s up to you to implement the method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you’re okay.
To Do: Investigate 

10.  What’s the difference between an interface and abstract class?
In an interface class, all methods are abstract - there is no implementation.  In an abstract class some methods can be concrete.  In an interface class, no accessibility modifiers are allowed.  An abstract class may have accessibility modifiers. 

11.  What is the difference between a Struct and a Class?
Structs are value-type variables and are thus saved on the stack, additional overhead but faster retrieval.  Another difference is that structs cannot inherit. 

Method and Property Questions

1.      What’s the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the set method/property of a class?
Value.  The data type of the value parameter is defined by whatever data type the property is declared as. 

2.      What does the keyword “virtual” declare for a method or property?
The method or property can be overridden. 

3.      How is method overriding different from method overloading?
When overriding a method, you change the behavior of the method for the derived class.  Overloading a method simply involves having another method with the same name within the class. 

4.      Can you declare an override method to be static if the original method is not static?
No.  The signature of the virtual method must remain the same.  (Note: Only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override) 

5.      What are the different ways a method can be overloaded?
Different parameter data types, different number of parameters, different order of parameters. 

6.      If a base class has a number of overloaded constructors, and an inheriting class has a number of overloaded constructors; can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to a specific base constructor?
Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.

Events and Delegates

1.      What’s a delegate?
A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. 

2.      What’s a multicast delegate?
A delegate that has multiple handlers assigned to it.  Each assigned handler (method) is called.

XML Documentation Questions

1.      Is XML case-sensitive?

2.      What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments?
Single-line comments, multi-line comments, and XML documentation comments. 

3.      How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler?
Compile it with the /doc switch.

Debugging and Testing Questions

1.      What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK?
1.   CorDBG – command-line debugger.  To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch.
2.   DbgCLR – graphic debugger.  Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR. 

2.      What does assert() method do?
In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false.  The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true. 

3.      What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class?
Documentation looks the same.  Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds. 

4.      Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher?
The tracing dumps can be quite verbose.  For applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive.  Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing you to fine-tune the tracing activities. 

5.      Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected?
To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor. 

6.      How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application?
Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger. 

7.      What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing?
1.       Positive test cases (correct data, correct output).
2.       Negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling).
3.       Exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly). 

8.      Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application?
Yes.  If you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window. 

ADO.NET and Database Questions

1.      What is the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections?
It returns a read-only, forward-only rowset from the data source.  A DataReader provides fast access when a forward-only sequential read is needed. 

2.      What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET?
SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix.  OLE-DB.NET is a .NET layer on top of the OLE layer, so it’s not as fastest and efficient as SqlServer.NET. 

3.      What is the wildcard character in SQL?
Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’. 

4.      Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions.
A transaction must be:
1.       Atomic - it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions.
2.       Consistent - data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t.
3.       Isolated - no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction).
4.       Durable - the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after. 

5.      What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support?
Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via Microsoft SQL Server username and password). 

6.      Between Windows Authentication and SQL Server Authentication, which one is trusted and which one is untrusted?
Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction. 

7.      What does the Initial Catalog parameter define in the connection string?
The database name to connect to. 

8.      What does the Dispose method do with the connection object?
Deletes it from the memory.
To Do: answer better.  The current answer is not entirely correct. 

9.      What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling?
Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings.  The connection string must be identical.

Assembly Questions

1.      How is the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET?
Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly. 

2.      What are the ways to deploy an assembly?
An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command. 

3.      What is a satellite assembly?
When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies. 

4.      What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application?
System.Globalization and System.Resources.

5.      What is the smallest unit of execution in .NET?
an Assembly.

6.      When should you call the garbage collector in .NET?
As a good rule, you should not call the garbage collector.  However, you could call the garbage collector when you are done using a large object (or set of objects) to force the garbage collector to dispose of those very large objects from memory.  However, this is usually not a good practice.

7.      How do you convert a value-type to a reference-type?
Use Boxing.

8.      What happens in memory when you Box and Unbox a value-type?
Boxing converts a value-type to a reference-type, thus storing the object on the heap.  Unboxing converts a reference-type to a value-type, thus storing the value on the stack.


1.What is the difference between user controls and custom controls?
CUSTOM CONTROLS  are DLL'S.It can be placed in the toolbox.Drag and drop controls.
USER CONTROLS: are pages (.ascx).It can not be placed in the tool box.

2.what are the 3 types of session state modes?
a.Inproc-session kept as live object in the web server(aspnet_wp.exe)
b.Stateserver-Session serialized and stored in memory in a seperate process(aspnet_state.exe),we can use for webform architecture.
c.SQLServer-Session serialized and stored in sql server.

3. what are the 6 types of validation controls in ASP.NET?
1.Required Field validator.2.Range validator.3.Regular Expression validator.5custom validator.
6.validation summary.

4.What are the 3 types of caching in ASP.NET?
1. Output Caching(Page Caching)- stores the responses from an page(aspx) or user control(.ascx).
2.Fragment Caching(Partial Caching)- Only stores the portion of a page.
3. Data Caching is the programmatic way to your objects to a managed cache.
//Add item
Cache["TopProducts"] = objTopProductsDataset;
//Retrieve item
objDataset = Cache["TopProducts"];

.5.How to Manage state in ASP.NET?
we can manage the state in two ways
Clent based techniques are
Viewstate, Query strings and Cookies.
Server based techniques are
Application and Session

6.What is the difference between overloading and shadowing?
Overloading ----------- A Member has the name, but something else in the signature is different.
Shadowing --------- A member shadows another member if the derived member replaces the base member
7.what is the difference between overloading and overriding?
Overloading : Method name remains the same with different signatures.
Overriding : Method name and Signatures must be the same.
8.what is the difference between Manifest and Metadata?
Manifest describes assembly itself.
Assembly Name,version number,culture,strongname,listof all all files,Type references,and referenced assemblies.
Metadata describes contents in an assembly
classes, interfaces, enums, structs, etc., and their containing namespaces, the name of each type,
its visibility/scope, its base class, the interfaces it implemented, its methods and their scope
, and each method’s parameters, type’s properties, and so on.
9.What is Boxing and Unboxing?
Boxing is an implicit conversion of a value type to the type object
int i = 123; // A value type
Object box = i // Boxing
CASTING : casting is the process of converting a variable from one type to another (from a string to an integer )
Unboxing is an explicit conversion from the type object to a value type
int i = 123; // A value type
object box = i; // Boxing
int j = (int)box; // Unboxing

10.what are the method parameter in c#?
C# is having 4 parameter types which are
1.Value Parameter. default parameter type. Only Input
2.Reference(ref) Parameter. Input\Output
3.Output(out) Parameter.
4.Parameter(params) Arrays
11.what are value types and reference types?
Value type
bool, byte,chat, decimal,double,enum , float, int, long, sbyte, short, strut, uint, ulong, ushort
Value types are stored in the Stack
Reference type
class, delegate, interface, object, string
Reference types are stored in the Heap
12.what are the two activation modes for .NET Remoting?
1. Singleton 2. Singlecall

13.what's singlecall Activation mode used for ?
The Server Object is instantiated for responding to just one single request
14.what's the singleton Activation mode used for?
The server object is instantiated for responding number of clients
15.what are the channels and Formatters?
Binay Over TCP is most efficient
SOAP over HTTP is most interoperable
Binary and SOAP
16.What are the two Authentication modes for SQL server connection?
1. Trusted Connection - Windows Authentication
2. Non trusted Connection - Sql Server Authentication(its preferable for webservices)
17.What is typed dataset?
Data Access is normally done using indexes on collectionsin object model.
In ADO.NET it is possible to create a variation on a Dataset that does support
such syntax.Such Dataset is called "Typed Dataset".
Errors in the syntax are detected during compile time rather than runtime.
Advantages of Typed Dataset:
1.The data designer tool generates typed Datasets.
2.When we type the name of a dataset while writing a code,
weget a list of all available tables in the dataset.No need to
remember the table names.
For (eg) instead of typing
we can type  

18.what is DataReader?

DataReader is a read only stream of data returned from
the database as the query executes.
It contains one row of data in memory at a time and is
restricted to navigating forward only in the results one record at a time.
Datareader supports access to multiple result sets but only one at a time and in the order retrieved.
In ADO data is no longer available through the Datareaderoncethe connection to the datasource is closed
which means a Datareader requires a connection to the Database throughout its usage.
o/p parameters or return values are only available thrugh the Datareader once the connection is closed.
19.Difference between Dataset and Recordset?
The Recordset was not XML-based and could not be serialized to XML easily or flexibly.
Finally, a Recordset was not independent of a data store because it tracked a Connection object
and through its methods could send queries to the data source to populate, update,
and refresh its data.
To that end, the Recordset contained functionality found in the ADO.NET DataSet,
data reader, and data adapter objects.

Similar to the DataSet, a Recordset could be disconnected from its data store
and therefore act as an in-memory cache of data.
Of course, it could also be used in a connected model depending on the cursor options that were set.
Although the Recordset object stored multiple versions of each column for each of its rows,
it was not by nature able to represent multiple tables without the use of the Data Shape Provider.
21.What isan Assembly, Private Assembly and SharedAssembly,Strong Name?
Assembly:  Assemblies are basically the compiled code in .Net which contains the code in Microsoft Intermediate Langauge and one more thing that assembiles do for us as compared to dlls is they can maintain versioning with the help of the manifest.
You dont need to register the assemblies after compiling like we needed in dlls. you can put the assemblies in the bin folder and refer the namespaces from there.
In short find the assembly description as :
Assemblies are the building blocks of .NET Framework applications; they form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality. An assembly provides the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations. To the runtime, a type does not exist outside the context of an assembly.

Private assembly is used inside an application only and does not have to be identified by a strong name
Shared assembly can be used by multiple applications and has to have a strong name.
Strong Name :A strong name includes the name of the assembly, version number, culture identity, and a public key token.

22.what is an Delegate?
A strongly typed function pointer. A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method.
23.what are webservices?
A Web Service is an application that delivers a service across the Internet using the standards and technologies defined in the Web Services architecture in a platform-independent and language-neutral fashion.
Web Services rely on several XML protocols based on open standards that are collectively known as the Web Services architecture
24.Define Automatic memory Management:
c# Provides Automatic memory Management.
Automatic memory Management increases code quality and enhances developer productivity without negatively impacting
either expressivenessor perfromance.Developers are freed from this burdensome task.
25.Define Threading:
It's a process of creating applications that can perform multiple tasks independently.
26Difference Between XML AND HTML?
User definable tags.
Content driven
End tags required for well formed documents
Quotes required around attributes values
Slash required in empty tags
Defined set of tags designed for web display
Format driven
End tags not required
Quotes not required
Slash not required
27.What is XSLTand what is it's use?
XSL Transformations (XSLT) is yet another popular W3C specification that defines XML-based syntax, used to transform XML documents to any other text format, such as HTML, text, XML, etc. XSLT stylesheets can be applied on the source XML document to transform XML into some other XML, or text, HTML, or any other text format.

28.What is Diffgram?
It's an XML format.
It'sone of the two xml formats that uses to render Dataset object contents to XML.
For reading database data to an XML file to be sent to a webservice.
29.what is the Role of XSL?
Querying a database and then formatting the result set so that it can be validated as an XML document allows developers to translate the data into an HTML table using XSLT rules. Consequently, the format of the resulting HTML table can be modified without changing the database query or application code since the document rendering logic is isolated to the XSLT rules
30.What is SAX?
Simple API for XML Processing (SAX) is an alternative to DOM, and can be used to parse XML documents. SAX is based on streaming model. The SAX parser reads input XML stream and generates various parsing events that an application can handle. With each parsing event, the parser sends sufficient information about the node being parsed. Unlike DOM, SAX does not build an in-memory representation of the source XML document, and hence it is an excellent alternative when parsing large XML documents, as SAX does not require that much memory (and resources). Unlike DOM, SAX is not defined/controlled by W3C. See for details.

32.Give a few examples of types of applications that can benefit from using XML.
XML allows content management systems to store documents independently of their format, which thereby reduces data redundancy. Another answer relates to B2B exchanges or supply chain management systems. In these instances, XML provides a mechanism for multiple companies to exchange data according to an agreed upon set of rules. A third common response involves wireless applications that require WML to render data on hand held devices.

33.When constructing an XML DTD, how do you create an external entity reference in an attribute value?
when using SGML, XML DTDs don't support defining external entity references in attribute values.
34.Give some examples of XML DTDs or schemas that you have worked with.
Although XML does not require data to be validated against a DTD, many of the benefits of using the technology are derived from being able to validate XML documents against business or technical architecture rules. Polling for the list of DTDs that developers have worked with provides insight to their general exposure to the technology.commonly used DTDs such as FpML, DocBook, HRML, and RDF, as well as experience designing a custom DTD for a particular project
35.What is SOAP and how does it relate to XML?
The Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) uses XML to define a protocol for the exchange of information in distributed computing environments. SOAP consists of three components: an envelope, a set of encoding rules, and a convention for representing remote procedure calls. Unless experience with SOAP is a direct requirement for the open position, knowing the specifics of the protocol, or how it can be used in conjunction with HTTP, is not as important as identifying it as a natural application of XML.
36.What is WSDL?
Another key standard in the Web Services architecture is the Web Services Description Language, or WSDL for short. Whereas SOAP is responsible for providing a platform-neutral protocol for transporting data types and interapplication messaging, WSDL is an XML grammar responsible for exposing the methods, arguments, and return parameters exposed by a particular Web Service.

37.What’s the difference between authentication and authorization? Authentication happens first. You verify user’s identity based on credentials. Authorization is making sure the user only gets access to the resources he has credentials for.
38.Explain loosely coupled events. Loosely coupled events enable an object (publisher) to publish an event. Other objects (subscribers) can subscribe to an event. COM+ does not require publishers or subscribers to know about each other. Therefore, loosely coupled events greatly simplify the programming model for distributed applications.
39.Define scalability.
The application meets its requirement for efficiency even if the number of users increases.
40.Define reliability.
The application generates correct and consistent information all the time.
41.Define availability.
Users can depend on using the application when needed.
42.Define security.
The application is never disrupted or compromised by the efforts of malicious or ignorant users
43.Define manageability.
Deployment and maintenance of the application is as efficient and painless as possible
44.Explain durability.
Make sure that the system can return to its original state in case of a failure.
45.Explain integrity.
Ensure data integrity by protecting concurrent transactions from seeing or being adversely affected by each other’s partial and uncommitted results.
46.Explain consistency.
We must ensure that the system is always left at the correct state in case of the failure or success of a transaction.
47.Explain JIT activation.
The objective of JIT activation is to minimize the amount of time for which an object lives and consumes resources on the server. With JIT activation, the client can hold a reference to an object on the server for a long time, but the server creates the object only when the client calls a method on the object. After the method call is completed, the object is freed and its memory is reclaimed. JIT activation enables applications to scale up as the number of users increases
48.Define Constructors and destructors
The create and destroy methods - often called constructors and destructors - are usually implemented for any abstract data type. Occasionally, the data type's use or semantics are such that there is only ever one object of that type in a program. In that case, it is possible to hide even the object's `handle' from the user. However, even in these cases, constructor and destructor methods are often provided.
Of course, specific applications may call for additional methods, e.g. we may need to join two collections (form a union in set terminology) - or may not need all of these.




1.Why do you use Option Explicit.
2.What are the data types in VBScript.
3.What is a session Object.
4.What are the three Objects of ADO.
5.What are the lock-types available in ADO.Explain.
6.What are the cursor types available in ADO.Explain.
7.What is a COM component.
8.How do you register a COM component.
9.What is a virtual root and how do you create one?.
10.What is a database index, how do you create one,
discuss it's pros and cons.
11.What is the default language of ASP.
12.How do you use multiple record sets( rs.NextRecordSet ).
13.As soon as you fetch a record set, what operations would
you perform.
14.Define a transaction. What are acid properties of a
15.How would you remotely administer IIS.
16.What is RAID? What is it used for.
17.What is normalization?. Explain normalization types.
18.What is the disadvantage of creating an index in every column
of a database table.
19.What are the uses of source control software.
20.You have a query that runs slowly, how would you make it better.
21.What is a bit datatype?.What is it used for.
22.How would you go about securing IIS and MS-SQL Server.
23.What is the difference between Request("field) and Request.Form("field").
24.Few example scenarios of static and dynamic XMLs.